Annotated Bibliography and MLA Citations

Once you have read the text, then you will need to begin your exploration of the criticism provided in the Norton Anthology. First you should brainstorm what aspect of the text you found most interesting and what you most want to read more about. Read through the table of contents carefully and decide which of the essays best fits what you want to learn more about. Next you will need to read the essay and annotate (make notes in the margin) about key ideas that connect to the topic you are interested in. Remember, all of the work on your blog, including this assignment, is designed to help you develop your ideas for your Research Paper.

Review the description of Annotated Bibliography (that we discussed in class) here: What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Title your blog post Annotated Bibliography. At top put the citation that you will later list on your Works Cited page. This will both save you time later and help you to organize your citation information. Next, Paraphrase the section of the essay you found most applicable to your topic. After your Paraphrase, include quotations that you might consider using in your paper. Include the proper MLA citation after each of the excerpts.

If you want help with the formatting of the citation, feel free to use the Easy Bib link below to create the properly formatted (make sure to click on MLA) citation. The program will allow you to save this information in a list and you can also cut and paste the properly formatted citation into your Annotated Bibliography post.  Easy Bib 

All Research Papers must be accompanied by a properly formatted Works Cited page that includes at least two scholarly articles in addition to the Scarlet Letter. Your paper should incorporate evidence and in-text citations that reference at least one of these articles.

MLA Information
More MLA examples
MLA Citations 


The Scarlet Letter and Persepolis

Nathaniel Hawthorne's Friends
Ralph Waldo Emerson
"Trust Thy Self," Emerson wrote in his essay Self Reliance."Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles."
—Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1841

"Yet then and only then, will mankind be ripe for this, when inward and outward freedom for woman as much for man shall be acknowledged as a right, not yielded as a concession."
"...let them be sea captains..."
—Margaret Fuller, 1845

Central Conflict


24 people were hung as a result of the Salem Witch Trials. Nathaniel Hawthorne's great-great grandfather was a judge in the trial—a fact that is referenced in The Custom House.

19th Century Painting Depicting Salem Witch Trial
The early American Puritans were essentially Calvinists and believed in pre-determination, which means that God determined whether or not you were 'good' or 'evil' and there was nothing you could do to change that—your fate is sealed at birth. God was also removed from human kind, in other words, you could not, through prayer, etc., send or receive messages from God. There was no hope of salvation if you were damned and there was no hope of forgiveness for your sins. If you were evil, you would burn in hell for all eternity.

Since politics and religion were essentially one in the same during this time,  the Puritan belief system instilled a sense of fear in the inhabitants of Salem. Citizens were well aware of the risk of losing land rights and/or trading rights, if they were accused of wrong doing. Judges adhered to Puritan religious beliefs in their decisions as the law and religion were unified in this society. Evidence could include work of the devil including curses and specters (visions) and many other intangibles. 

Your future was best served if you convinced everyone around you that you were one of God's chosen few. Dissension against the status quo, could be interpreted as a sign of the devil, especially for women. Salem citizens could either conform, or risk being cast out of society, or worse. 

This belief that the devil resided every where and was potential of clever disguises and trickery (such as what we observe in Young Goodman Brown) cultivated a society ripe for the hysteria that led up to the Salem Witch trials. If there was suspicion cast upon you, then the safest method of refuting these accusations was to point the finger at someone else. 

Puritans were also a patriarchal society. They did not subscribe to the biblical interpretation that the wife was a "helpmate," but rather that the wife was owned or "possessed" by her husband. Women had no rights to property and were given no say in the political decisions of the day. In fact, many women who had become widowed and therefore became land owners were the subject of not only public scrutiny, but also scorn. Since women were not supposed to own land, the unfortunate death of their husband could put them at great risk. Some were even accused of being witches, others were executed. We will discuss the story of Mistress Hibbons in class.

The philosophy that each one of us holds an inner-light and/or that "God lives inside all of us" did not agree with the Puritan religion, so the Quakers were considered their enemy.  Antinomian, which means "against moral law," was a term used to describe anyone who spoke out or acted against the Puritan belief system.  Understanding the term Antimomian, the history of Anne Hutchinson and the symbolism used throughout the novel to explore this concept will be crucial for your analysis of the themes in The Scarlet Letter. We will discuss religious intolerance, Anne Hutchinson, and Hawthorne's symbolism for Antinomianism during our class discussions.  


Your Norton Critical Edition is an excellent source for your Research Project. Here is another source that I think is a great reference for the background information on the Pilgrims and the differences between Pilgrims and Puritans.  

I realize this is the 21 Century and many of you prefer online sources to those that you have already purchased as the required text for this class, however, I encourage you to limit your time looking for quick "answers" on the internet. As college students we are counting on you not to recycle and distribute inaccurate information. I encourage you instead to work through the primary source using a dictionary and by applying the college skills of annotation and close reading of The Scarlet Letter. Your assignments require you to write about specific difficulties you encounter with this reading on your blog posts. By incorporating passages from the text and trying to make meaning of these passages, you will better synthesize the information and build a solid foundation from which to build your Formal Essay. After completing The Scarlet Letter, use the Norton Critical Edition source material to deepen your understanding of the many complexities in this novel. Your Annotated Bibliography posts will help you sort and process the information that you find most compelling. In completing these steps you will be in a good position to begin writing. 

Despite all of these assignments, our discussions and source material that you already have in your possession, I expect many of you to fall back on the habits cultivated by our society that practically demands instant gratification—namely the online version of Cliff Notes, Spark Notes, or eNotes websites. And for those of you readers who have not been, for whatever reason, flexing the 'reading' muscles on a regular basis, these aids, may indeed be very helpful to you. Like everything else in life, the more you 'practice' reading, the more proficient you become and if you are out of practice, this text will be even more challenging to you. That said, using these tools as a secondary or reference source to your reading is acceptable, but simply reading the summaries instead of reading the novels is not. One of my concerns with this method of 'figuring' out a text is that you are simply a consumer of someone else's ideas. College is one of the few non-consumer based bastions in our American life. Do not simply consume the ideas presented on these sites, rather, consider them for what they are: someone else's ideas. Think about them critically and then go back to the text and make your own meaning. I am interested in reading the meaning that YOU make from this text, not reading the meaning that eNotes makes of the text.

Remember, one of the themes in this text is the individual's ability to choose between right and wrong and the freedom to make this choice despite the constraints and influences of society.

What about our contemporary culture? How does our society respond to adultery? Would we ever consider brandishing someone with a badge of dishonor? 

Well, what about impeaching a president over a sexual act? Does the name  Monica Lewinksy ring any bells? What about Bill Clinton?

How about Tiger Woods? Rather than gaining a badge of dishonor, Woods—the first golfer ever to hold all four professional major championships at the same time—lost his badges of honor when the majority of his sponsors dropped him and he was forced to step away from golf in December of 2009. 

The fact that he has enjoyed more victories (and made more money) than any other U.S. golfer, could not save him when his adultery was made public.

Although, these examples make clear that adultery continues to be a heated issue in the U.S. there is no denying that the public scorn for both Clinton and Woods was short lived and, although humiliating, had no real lasting effects on either man. It is interesting that, outside the tabloids, we have no female equivalent to compare public reactions to on this topic. I wonder if society would be so forgiving toward a woman? 

From our humble roots in the Massachusett's Bay Colonies we have progressed as a nation and no longer do our laws tolerate persecution based on religious beliefs. Still, we should never forget the Antinomian rebels in our history whose actions went against the moral law of the land and opened up the possibility for a different interpretation of good and evil.  

Sadly, the world has not changed for everyone...

The U.S. response to adultery is mild-mannered compared to the brutal realities that continue to exist in other countries. Today a 43-year-old mother of two children, Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, is facing execution for committing adultery in Iran.  She was scheduled for death by stoning last summer, but her attorney fled the country and leaked her story to the BBC. He is now seeking asylum in Norway and, due to the International outcry that resulted, the execution continues to be delayed.

Afghanistan Women, New York Times

Women in Africa New York Times

                                                 Research Paper Guidelines

Write a 5-7 page literary analysis of The Scarlet Letter, incorporating research from a minimum of three sources to enhance your ideas (the book itself can be one of your sources). The research done for your annotated bibliography will provide a good foundation for writing this essay, giving you a strong background on the author and/or the text. Your research might focus on what literary critics have said about this author’s work, biographical or autobiographical material that might help readers better understand the text, or you may chose to write from the perspective of one of the critical theories we have discussed. The focus of your essay must be an interpretation of the literature itself, using the research as enhancement but not as the main emphasis of your essay. For example, if your research focuses on biographical information, use it to help interpret a theme, character, or other aspect of the text.
A strong essay will have a clear controlling idea and well-developed TEA paragraphs that support your claim.  You should incorporate (either through paraphrase or quotations) examples from The Scarlet Letter as well as refer specifically to your research sources. Use MLA format for parenthetical citations and your works cited page.
  1. Participation in Rough Draft Peer Review is Mandatory. You will receive 15 points for peer-review and 15 points for bringing your rough draft to PEER REVIEW DAY. No late papers will be reviewed. Come to class and bring a hard copy or your Research Paper grade will be affected.
  2. All drafts will be workshopped during class and collected by the instructor for feedback. See schedule for important dates.
  3.  Each of you should have a copy of the grading rubric. By now you know that sentence-level errors need to be kept to a minimum on the final draft. See me and/or a writing assistant at the Gavilan Writing Center for help with this paper if you need it.

Class Discussions will produce many paper ideas. Please come to class, take notes and be thinking about what interests you about this text. You should write your Research Paper on the aspect of the text that you find most interesting.  I will meet with students for an individual conference to discuss your drafts.

Paper Topics (These are suggestions only):

What would a feminist have to say about the characters in the Scarlet Letter? Is Hester a feminist? How does Pearl fit into the story? What is Hester’s response to the Patriarchy around her? Is Hester in love? Is Chillingsworth a feminist? How does the ending impact our understanding of Hester’s character and Hawthorne’s views about women? Why does Hawthorne connect Hester with Mistress Hibbons and Anne Hutchinson?

How would a New Historicist analyze The Scarlet Letter? What do the three contexts (or historical periods) in the novel tell us about the meaning of this text? How does our contemporary view skew the reading? How did Hawthorne’s 19th century values contribute to the characterizations in the novel? What would a reader in the 1600s have to say about Hawthorne’s depiction of Puritanism? How was the novel received (by the public) in the 19th century? What were the reviewers’ reactions? What does this say about the audience at the time of publication?

A sociologist and/or Marxist theorist would have much to say about the Puritan society depicted in this novel. How did the Puritan belief system enforce patriarchy? How did patriarchy and Puritanism support the economic system? What was the role of the townspeople in Salem and how did they contribute to this system? How did Chillingsworth and Hester stand apart from the rest of the society? How does Hawthorne’s story give us insight into the hysteria that led to the Salem Witch Trials?

A formalist would be very interested in the word “possessed” in this novel. How many times is the word used? Why is it used? What is the effect on the reader? How does the structure of the novel contribute to the novel’s tension and ambiguity? What symbols are used in this novel and how do they affect the meaning? What does the A stand for? How does the meaning change of this symbol change throughout the novel?

A reader response critic would be very interested in how the themes in the novel impact his/her own ideas about culture, social values as well as the concept of good and evil. What is good and what is evil in your mind and how does the novel help you to define this distinction? What character do you admire most and why? Which character (s) do you dislike and why? Can you relate to the traits or experiences of these characters?

A biographical critic would be very interested in how Hawthorne’s life shaped this novel. What characteristics of Hawthorne’s family informed the characters and events in the novel? What aspects of Hawthorne’s personality are revealed and how does the 19th Century (the 1800s) influence how he portrays the characters and events in this novel? What other books did Hawthorne read and how did this influence his work?

Process suggestions:
1.     Review your lectures notes and information posted on Instructor Knapp’s blog. In particular, review the Key Terms post, Critical Theories Overview, Combining Sentences, Constructing an Argument, Popular Student Errors, Using Quotations, and The Scarlet Letter.
2.     Look back at your own blog posts to get ideas about a possible theme to explore or an approach to this essay. You should also read some of your peers blogs to expand your ideas on the text.
3.     Brainstorm ideas for research and writing by doing a cluster, list, or freewrite.
4.     Begin your research process by formulating questions about your chosen text. Your research may be more fertile if you direct the search somewhat. Locate Critical Essays in our Norton Critical Edition that connect to your questions.
5.     Skim several of the essays included in our anthology, additional writings by the author, or biographical information to help you develop your interpretation.
6.     Discuss your questions, ideas, and responses with a classmate, instructor or another person.
7.     In your first draft, draw plenty of examples from the text. Include references to your research. Don’t be afraid to argue with the literary critics you’ve read. Let this draft be your chance to enter the literary conversation and don’t “censor” your ideas—it’s better to overwrite on your draft to allow for insights that you gain during the process of writing to emerge. Later you can edit, select, or throw out what doesn’t fit.
8.     When revising, return to your introduction to ensure that you have a clear, strong (narrow) thesis. Remember to name the author and text in your introduction. The title of your essay should reflect the theme of the essay (do not use the title of the book as the title of your essay). The body of your essay should include plenty of support for your ideas, including examples and quotes from the book. Use specific references to your research to enhance your interpretation of the text. Generally, the most effective way to use quotes is to use them to support a point you’re making; then follow up the quote with interpretation (Remember the TEA paragraph and the Quote Sandwich). Review MLA format for citations if you need to.
9.     Share your rough draft with your peer response group. Ask for specific feedback on the parts of the essay you’re unsure about. You may also contact me for help or submit your rough drafts to the campus Writing Center for help. 


Guiding Question for Research Paper number one:
Should the U.S. take military action over Iran's Nuclear Program?

Diplomacy? Iranian Supreme Leader says, No Thanks.

Economic Sanctions

UCLA Middle Eastern Studies "Arab Spring"

Current Op-Eds on Iran

Blog Review of Persepolis

Zahra's Paradise

Young and Defiant in Iran

Making the Film

Interview with Marjane Satrapi

Escape from Iran, Wired Magazine

Female Voting Rights Granted in Saudi Arabia
Map of Iran

Iran History

Ban on Fun with  Squirt Guns in Iran

Google Warns Iranian Users

Iran Overview NYT

Reading Lolita in Tehran


NYT Search 1

NYT Search 2

The Veil

Maysan Haydar "Veiled Intentions"

Are veiled women feminists? If they choose to veil for reasons of reverence, then who is the most liberated?

"At the heart of my veiling is a personal freedom…I dress this way because it made it easier to get through adolescent phases and New York City streets with no self-loathing, body hang-ups, or sexual harassment. I wish more women emerged unscathed; no one should suffer for what they look like or what they wear." —Maysan Haydar

 "America is an image-obsessed society," Maysan Haydar writes,"Ironically, the population that spends millions on beauty products, plastic surgery, and self-help guides is the same one that takes pity on me for being so "helpless" and "oppressed."


Exam Feedback

Great TEA analysis. I asked: What message is this student sending? Am I convinced of the message? Or am I left asking questions. Questions that extend beyond the present analysis are great, but if I’m asking questions about the credibility of the message or the logic of the message or the message itself, then more clarity needs to occur. The message is blurred, or vague.

Great incorporation of evidence: Here’s what you do when you don’t have any idea what the question is asking? Incorporate the language from the prompt in an explanatory way and lead your reader to your brief analysis. If you’re guiding me through the prompt and explaining clearly as you go—great. You do need to make your claim: what does this mean, but I’m less likely to argue with you if you have prepared me well.

Page numbers! Why just the author’s name here?

Wow! Great work on the lists. I will read a couple of these in class.

The assessment on the exam was divided into two parts. Part 1 assessed whether or not you could apply critical terms to fiction. Part 11 asked you to interpret literature, specifically “Diving Into the Wreck.”
  1. I was very pleased with the success rate on this exam!
  2. You were all able to identify the parts of the story. There were a couple of students who struggled with one or two terms. The epiphany troubled both of these students—this is the most difficult aspect of literature. Also, if you missed class when we worked on these terms….well you might not have had all of the information.
  3. Many students went ahead and applied these terms to their analysis of the story…they went above and beyond the basic requirements of the exam and interpreted the stories—I saw some excellent efforts by these students! We will read one of those papers today on The Yellow Wallpaper and one more on Young Goodman Brown when we begin our discussion of The Scarlet Letter.
  4.  Everyone did a good job of interpreting "Diving Into the  Wreck." It was very interesting to read so many different interpretations of this highly symbolic text. This is a testament to the power of language and symbol and the connection between language, culture and meaning. If you continue on in the Humanities, this is a subject you will discuss often.
  5.  Everyone used specific examples to support their ideas and looped from the text to their interpretation and back to the text. You will need this skill for your next paper and this exam gave you a great opportunity to practice on the small scale. 
  6. Everyone worked to create meaning and articulated this meaning coherently. You had a week to do this, so I expected few errors, for the most part I was pleased with this aspect of you writing. But for those of you who continue to be plagued by errors, you will need to build extra time into your writing process. Frequent grammar errors need to stop at English 1B—especially, if they impede meaning. These errors impact your credibility and they need to be taken seriously. Work with a tutor one-on-one in the Writing Center or see me.
  7. One area I’d like to see improve is on taking the time to introduce your ideas. Some just rushed into what you thought the symbols meant without acknowledging that the poem was about a diver going into the water. The best papers acknowledged this and explained that the diving or the water or the diver was a metaphor for something else. Taking the time to spell out (what might seem obvious to you) is very important to your reader. Using transitional language coordination and subordination helps. Using the term metaphor or symbol really helped students to connect their ideas. Practice using the terms in your blog, many of you are already doing this.

Here is an example of one student who went the extra mile and interpreted the story.
Read This—Explanation of the Yellow Wallpaper.

We seem to be in agreement here that things have really changed for women, but I think it’s important to remember this change came only after years of battling and much suffering. Something we will, hopefully, learn from our Reading of the Scarlet Letter.

But in some places this battle has not yet begun. Front Page of Today's NYTs.
You should each have a copy of the Discussion Schedule. Attendance will be important in our lead up to the Final Paper. 


Combining Sentences

Tool Number 1:

Effective transitions work to guide your reader through your points. Think of these important tools as the connection between your points. Proper usage of transitional language better aligns your audience with the purpose of your message.

Transitional language, subordination, coordination and pronouns act like stepping stones—they guide your reader through your points and help to clarify your message.

Understanding how and when to use academic transitions comes with practice.

Below I have listed the most frequently used transitions and classified them by the job they do best. 

To show Contrast: however, nevertheless, yet, although
To add More Information: moreover, furthermore, in addition to
To Emphasize: certainly, indeed, in fact, of course
To add Evidence: for example, for instance, thus, specifically
To Summarize: therefore

Use transitions to introduce examples: (NOTICE THESE PHRASES REQUIRE A COMMA!)

For example,
For instance,

To elaborate or clarify your points: 
After all,
In other words,

Click the link below to read more about using these important terms:

More than You'd ever Want to Know about Transitions

Tricky Punctuation:
What is the difference in punctuation in regards to the word, "however," in each sentence?

1) Traditionally the educational system tends to be the gate way of success; however, analyzing this system will reveal a deeper meaning. Lives on The Boundary, by Mike Rose, is a book to help explain how individuals, who have difficulties in reading and writing, struggle in the American education system. Rose, who teaches English class in UCLA, wrote this book to inform students, educators, policymakers and parents about how struggle affects outcomes in literature, reading, and writing, especially for those with language barriers.

2) New York Times, September 11, 2013: "One concern about how to implement the deal, however, involves how to protect international inspectors who come to Syria."

Notice the punctuation. What changed? Why?

Review of the Semi-Colon and Dependent and Independent Clauses


Tool Number 2: 

Combining Sentences Using FANBOYS

During revision, one of the most important tasks for a writer to accomplish is to get rid of redundancy and streamline points using a variety of sentence structure and punctuation tools.

One of the most common ways to combine ideas into one sentence is to use FANBOYS.

FANBOYS is an acronym for Coordinating Conjunctions:

Coordinators join two independent clauses that are equally important. Coordinators require a comma in most cases. Short sentences offer the only exception to this rule.

If you need to correct comma splice errors or run-on sentences, consider using a FANBOY. Watch this:  What is a Comma Splice error? 

FANBOYS classified by how they are used in a sentence:

But and Yet show contrast and concession.
For shows cause or reason
So is a result
or, nor, either...or...neither...nor shows a choice or option.

Tool Number 3: Use Subordinators to create cohesion in your writing.

Another way to combine sentences is to use subordination

A subordinator joins two elements to form one sentence. One element (the dependent clause) requires another element (the independent clause) to complete its meaning.

A subordinator doesn't have to come between two clauses; it may introduce a clause at the beginning of the sentence.

Be careful: Subordinators are common causes of fragments. Watch this Video to learn about fragments.
When you use a subordinator you are linking a dependent clause to a related independent clause.

Shows Contrast and Concession:
In spite of the fact
Despite the fact that
Even though

I asked students to read all three essays even though they are only required to write about one essay.

Which is the dependent clause? Which is the independent clause?

Notice that you can switch this sentence around:

Even though they were only required to write about one essay, I asked students to read all three essays.

Which is the dependent clause? Which is the independent clause?

Notice: When the dependent clause comes at the beginning, use a comma. However, you don't need a comma when the dependent clause comes at the end.

Whereas Rich points out that women have had to overcome many obstacles, Malcolm X explains that African Americans have faced even more overwhelming oppression, suffering and pain.

Shows cause/reason:
In that
Now That

Because I read Anne Lamott's essay on the importance of rough drafts, I'm no longer able to justify writing only one draft of my paper.

Since they read Donald Murray's article on how important it is to look critically at your own writing, many students have experimented with deleting sentences and rearranging information.

Shows Condition:
Even if
As long as
In the event that

If a student only reads part of one essay, then he may miss out on an idea that could empower him for the rest of his life.

Many students believe they are in for a lifetime of manual labor unless they focus on education.

Time Sequence and purpose:
As soon as
So that
In order that
In that
Provided that
Now that


Many writers procrastinate on assignments so that they will have a built-in excuse for accomplishing less than their best work.

After the semester started, many students found that the pace of the course was difficult.

As assignments start piling up, the number of students who are stressed out increases dramatically.

Tool Number 4: Repetition of Key Words and Phrases

In Technical Writing, key terms help to focus your reader on the point. For example, if you are writing about sustainability, using the term more than once keeps the reader focused on this concept throughout your document—which is a good thing. Although many of these tools build sentence variety, and you have learned that you want to eliminate redundancy in your writing, don't overlook the power of repeating key terms throughout a technical document or report in order to re-connect the audience with your focus. 

Repeating words and phrases can also work to emphasize a point.

 For example:
   My embarrassment stemmed not from the money lost but from the notoriety gained.
   She wanted her audience to remember the protest song and to understand its origin.
   The team vowed that they would support each other, that they would play their best, and that they   would win the tournament.
"If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me."
                                        — Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham Jail."


Next Lesson....click here


The Glass Menagerie

As we have learned in our study of the novel and short story, conflict, epiphanies and the resolution are essential components to fiction, but in the dramatic form conflict drives every scene. Where a fiction writer can layer tension, narrative, description, and dialogue over the course of a narrative arc that may span many pages, each of which build toward a climax—drama has no such luxury.

Pared down to stage, costume and dialogue, theater pulls us along not so much with the layering on of more and more tension, but rather by the fact that each scene is conflict-based. In the dramatic form, events don't build up and then happen. Events happen. We are immersed almost immediately in conflict as we move from scene to scene. 

Although we have several monologues that stand out from the conflicts in this play, The Glass Menagerie is no different. In fact, the monologues offer us key insights into the main character's internal thoughts (and conflicts) and in doing really work to extend the conflict in the surrounding scenes. 

Critics have described the relationship between the characters as “frustrated” because of their seeming lack of ability to communicate honestly to each other. Both internal and external conflicts contribute to this frustration. By zeroing in on three members in a dysfunctional family the audience can relate to each character’s plight and to many of the same internal and external conflicts that inevitably shape family.

Today we will look at each of the three characters and discuss internal and external conflicts that contribute to the meaning of the story.

Using the triple-entry journal format groups will examine specific scenes and explain how these scenes are conflicted by both internal and external forces.

The triple-entry journal is a great tool for you to use when you are gathering research for your upcoming research paper. I will go over the basics in class, each group will create a triple-entry journal and we will share our findings as a class.

As you are reading and discussing, please begin to think about what role you will play in our class productions. Will you be the Director, working to shape and control the written content from behind the scenes? Will you be the Writer, the tortured artist (or group of artists) responsible for breathing life into characters? Will you be an Actor, willing to embody the lives of imaginary characters? Costume Director? Set Design? What aspect of the dramatic form most inspires you?

Our mission will be to write a contemporary version of one scene from The Glass Menagerie. Groups will be responsible for writing, directing, editing and designing the in-class productions. Today in class I will have you pick your first and second choice for the following production roles:

Central Character (actor)
Set/Costume Designer

Since we are focusing on New Historicism, we will go over the following historical context in class on Monday in addition to reading and responding to excerpts from Tom, The Unknown Tennessee Williams, by Lyle Leverich.

Historical Timeline


The Cast 

What is a Director?

What is an actor?

What is a copy editor?

What does a set/costume designer do?

What are the writer's main responsibilities?

  1. Immediate Conflict—The heart of drama; someone wants something and people and things keep getting in the way of them achieving the goal. At times, the obstacles can be common to both the hero and villain, and the ultimate goal a laudable one for both parties (Scripped.com). Conflict can be external— what is happening around the characters, or internal—emotional conflict. The screenwriter must make sure both internal and external conflict both utilized to maximize conflict in the scene. 
  2. A Believable Scene—The characters need to be faced with a "real" problem, one that the audience can relate to and care about.
  3. Lively and Realistic Dialogue—the writer must think about the language that each character would use, what they would say and what they would not say are equally important.
  4. Rising Action, Epiphany and Resolution

Topic Teams:
Violence (Note: Violence can include any act of oppression), Family, Culture, Gender


Constructing an Argument

What is the job of the Introduction?
The academic introduction is often the most difficult aspect of the paper to craft because the writer needs to first 'hook' the reader and then work to connect the reader to the purpose of the paper as well as make clear why all of this matters. A traditional academic paper includes a thesis statement at the end of the introductory paragraph. The thesis is defined as, "The central idea of an essay," according to Bedford's Glossary of Literary Terms. "The thesis is a complete sentence (although sometimes it may require more than one sentence)that establishes the topic of the essay in clear, unambiguous language."

There are many ways to construct an introduction, but often writers will open with a general statement or idea that the reader can relate too and/or an idea that connects the topic of the paper to the context (the world around the idea that helps the reader better understand the issue). The writer then moves the reader from this general idea to the specific focus of the paper by crafting a thesis statement. More than just identifying the topic of the paper, the thesis makes an active claim that clearly indicates the point (or argument) made in the essay. Each of the following paragraphs in the essay should then directly support this claim. The thesis should point the reader in the right direction, make the path clear, but also be provocative enough to motivate the reader to embark on the journey. 


As writers are still gaining clarity on their ideas through the process of writing their rough drafts, they employ a device called the Working ThesisThe Working Thesis may even be a question that the writer attempts to answer which helps to guide the direction of research and analysis. The thought process that goes into stringing together supporting paragraphs is the equivalent of the scientist testing the hypothesis. Factual evidence and logical analysis inform the writer's ideas about a topic even as these supporting paragraphs are being written, which is why it is very common for many writers to come up with an effective thesis only after they have written a complete draft. I often come up with my thesis after several revisions when I'm attempting to write my conclusion. 

The trick is identifying the thesis whenever and wherever it may first be written and then tweaking it to fulfill its job at the end of the introduction.   

Always revise the working thesis during revision by reflecting on the information integrated into the supporting paragraphs and why it matters. In an academic essay, the Thesis Statement is the most important sentence because it sets the tone and direction of the essay, and provides the reader with the controlling idea that holds the rest of the writing together.

One common mistake: not enough analysis. When writing about a topic they have recently learned about, students often work hard to explain this topic and can effectively support their ideas with evidence,  but many have a hard time connecting their ideas to why their exploration matters. Not only does the reader need to know—right up front—where they are headed, but they also need to know why this topic matters. How does this topic help the reader to better understand the meaning of the topic; moreover, how does this topic help the reader better understand the bigger problem associated with this topic and/or the world around us?

Another common mistake: inconsistent point of view. For academic essays point of view matters. The standard point of view is third person unless the paper is a personal narrative, which requires first person (I) narration.  In an effort to 'hook' readers, students often resort to using the second person (you, we, our), but this is usually a less then effective device, especially in an academic essay. Readers don't necessarily like to be addressed by the writer, and the familiar use of "you" tends to downplay the credibility of the writer, especially if the reader is not yet convinced by what the writer has to say. If I'm reading an essay and I come across a You, We, Our statement, then I sometimes feel a bit annoyed with the writer because at this point in the paper, the writer has switched from focusing on making a point and moved into an assumption that I am already on board with the argument—which may not be the case. Don't distract your readers with this reaction to your ideas—stick to a consistent third-person point of view. Very rarely, can a writer justify addressing the reader directly.

One more common mistake: not enough time reserved for revision. After the draft is written, the writer has a much clearer idea of the focus of the paper, but the writer is no where near done with the job of writing. Beginning writers often think the challenge of writing is found in getting to the end of the paper, but professional writers understand that this is only the tip of the iceberg. 

After the draft is complete, the writer should step away from the paper for a period of time, which necessitates careful planning and not procrastinating. The process of revision often begins with the writer reading back through the paper, only this time instead of reading it as a writer, they review the paper as a reader.

But what does revision mean?
One of the first tasks is to make sure each paragraph stays tightly focused on the controlling idea. If a paragraphs drift off the topic, then the writer needs to decide if this new information is worth developing, or not. Often, what a writer decides to leave out is as important as what they decide to leave in the paper. Many times, inexperienced writers don't want to 'cut,' because they are too attached to their own writing. After all, that paragraph took valuable time to write! But what a professional writer knows is that often it takes many badly crafted paragraphs to get to a good paragraph. Professional writers develop a very critical eye as they read through their own work and mercilessly hack away or reconstruct less than effective sentences and paragraphs. One way I trick myself into 'letting go' of my own writing, especially when I decide that an entire paragraph or section is off topic, is to open a new Word document and title it Cuts. As I read through my paper, I will cut sentences and sometimes entire sections of my paper and place them in this new document. I may decide to incorporate the information, or parts of the information, later in the process of revision. After all, that one sentence that stood out, might later provide the perfect transition into a new idea. Never just throw away this information because you never know when you might need it! But equally important is to not let badly crafted or confusing sentences pass on into your final draft. This process of writing and re-reading your paper is why you need a rough draft and TIME to refine your ideas.

The Body of the Essay

Don't forget your TEA paragraphs and Quote Sandwiches! Using the topic, evidence and analysis format helps you to focus your ideas, connect your ideas to the text and link textual evidence with your analysis. The TEA paragraph doesn't always utilize a quotation as evidence, but rather the TEA format does work to develop a topic (T) and provide an example, explanation, facts and/or anecdote (E) that serves to develop the topic as well as analysis (A) that tells us why this T / E matters.

The quote sandwich does incorporate either direct or indirect quotations which means that signal phrases need to be used in order to introduce and attribute the quotation. Both the TEA and Quote Sandwich paragraphs should incorporate a MLA Citation whenever the information incorporated comes from an outside source. See the Annotated Bibliography page for a link to an online reference site (on Instructor Knapp's Blog) or use your Pocket Reference book for proper citation information and examples.

Essential Elements of Rhetoric for Writers

Understanding the Rhetorical Triangle helps writers to better formulate their ideas to suit their audience and achieve their purpose. Rhetoric can be defined as any purposeful communication that involves an audience, author and text; however, text cannot be narrowly defined to words on the page because any communication—speeches, sculptures, and television advertisements—inherently sends a message and therefore should be considered 'rhetoric.' Rhetoricians point out that before human populations conversed in writing, rhetoric existed. Cicero, the ancient Roman orator and writer, described rhetoric as ‘the art by which discourse is adapted to its end.’ Linguists link the word to ancient Greece where a rhetor was an orator or speaker.

If you understand the basics of rhetoric, then you can more effectively communicate your purpose to the audience.
  • Figuring out the purpose of your message becomes central to successful communication. 

As a student the Rhetorical Triangle comes into play on every assignment. Questions you need to answer before writing include: What is the purpose of my writing? Who is the audience? How will I best shape my language and text to get my point across to this audience? 

The Rhetorical Triangle

Understanding the dynamic between author, audience and text/message helps writers to shape their work appropriately; however, there are other methodologies that improve the quality and increase the impact of the message.  Aristotle, a Greek philosopher and teacher who lived from 384-322 BCE, determined that emotional appeals greatly improved the author's ability to get a point across. Human beings are emotional creatures, so it only makes sense that appealing to the emotions of the audience would increase the potency of a message. Aristotle classified these appeals to emotion into three primary categories:

Rhetoric Glog

Logos:  Rational or Logical Appeals.  Appeal to logical reasoning ability of the audience through use of facts, case studies, statistics, experiments, logical reasoning, analogies, anecdotes, authority voices, etc.  Are writer’s claims reasonable?  Is there sufficient evidence to support those claims?  Does the speaker make logical conclusions?  Does he/she talk about counter-arguments, other opinions or points of view?

Pathos:  Emotional Appeals.  Appeal to beliefs/feelings of the audience.  An appeal of pathos can move an audience to anger or tears as a means of persuasion.  May attempt to invoke particular emotions such as fear, envy, patriotism, lust, etc.   Or, an appeal of pathos may stem from shared values between the author and the audience, or from an argument that caters to an audience’s beliefs.  
Ethos:  Ethical Appeals.    Appeal based on the character, persona, and/or position of the speaker.  This kind of appeals give the audience a sense of the author as competent/fair/an authority figure.  Such an appeal may highlight the author’s trustworthiness, credibility, reliability, expert testimony, reliable sources, fairness, celebrity, etc.

Examples of Rhetorical Strategies Classified by Appeal:
Pathos: startling facts and/or situations, personal experience, narrative, description, cause and effect

Logos: explanation, definition, quotations, evidence, citations, expert testimony, research, interviews, statistics, facts, exemplification (examples), process, classification.

Ethos: personal experience, research (quality of), education, background, career, diction (appropriate language), correct punctuation, grammar, spelling, attention to form.


Argumentative Thesis Statements

In an argumentative paper, you are making a claim about a topic and justifying this claim with reasons and evidence.  According to the editors at Purdue University's Online Writing Lab, "This claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation." However, this claim should be a statement that people could possibly disagree with because the goal of your paper is to convince your audience that your claim is true based on your presentation of your reasons and evidence. In an analysis paper an argumentative thesis statement and effective introductory paragraph will include: 

  • a connection to the general or big picture issue that your paper addresses. Often this  connection serves as the opening statement as is designed to "hook" in the reader
  • a brief/summary/description of the context (and/or issues or counterpoints) surrounding the topic of your paper (often this is decided by your knowledge of this subject and how it fits into the discourse community surrounding this subject)w
  • a clear purpose that conveys to the reader why this topic matters
  • the claim you are making (including the critical perspective or stance that you are taking in your paper)
  • often the introduction will also include an indication of the evidence that will be used to support this claim. However, the introduction is not typically the place for supporting details, but rather identification of topics that will be addressed (developed) in support of the claim (Although a detailed scene or scenario are effective means of hooking the reader and "showing" why the topic matters)

Sample Op-Ed
Stanford Daily

Verbs for Making a Claim:
reminds us

Verbs for Expressing Agreement:
sympathize with

Verbs for Disagreeing:


What is an academic Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is a sentence (or sentences) that expresses the main ideas of your paper, the main message you intend to convey.

General Thesis Statement Tips
  • A thesis statement generally consists of two parts: your topic, and then the analysis, explanation or claim (assertion) that you're making on the topic
  • A thesis statement focuses your discussion of your topic—it should cover only what you want to discuss in your paper, and then be supported throughout the paper with specific evidence
  • Generally, a thesis statement appears at the end of the first paragraph of an essay, so that readers will have a clear idea of what to expect as they read
  • You can think of your thesis as a map or a guide both for yourself and your audience
  • As you write and revise your paper, it's okay to change your thesis statement—sometimes you don't discover what you really want to say about a topic until you've started (or finished) writing! Just make sure that your "final" thesis statement accurately shows what will happen in your paper.
  • Be sure to address the "so what" aspect of your argument/thesis. The "so what?" question asks you to link your argument to some larger matter that readers already deem important. A good test to see if you have taken care of this very important aspect of the thesis is to ask yourself: why does this topic matter? Your thesis needs  to answer this question and make clear to the reader that you, the writer, thinks this issue matters. Hint: The writer needs to really believe that this topic matters in order to write a paper that convinces the reader that the topic matters. If your topic doesn't matter to you, then pick another topic.
  • Because is a powerful word to use in your thesis statement, especially if you are unfamiliar with writing arguments. The format would be: Insert topic of your paper is important because____________________.
According to "They Say, I Say," by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, writers don't just make isolated "claims" about a topic, rather they acknowledge the ongoing discussion about the topic and acknowledge that they are not the first to consider this idea. The authors write, "Effective persuasive writers do more than make well-supported claims... they also map those claims relative to the claims of others..." (Graff and Birkenstein xix). If you are new to argument and/or academic writing, templates can really help you set up your controlling idea.

Here are a few examples of connecting your topic to the ongoing discussion and showing why this matters:

In discussions of C, one controversial issue has been ____________________. On the other hand, ____________________argues _____________________. On the other hand, _____________contends ________________. Others even maintain________________.  There are aspects of all three arguments that I agree with, but I also disagree with the idea that _____________________. 

When it comes to the topic of ________, most of us will readily agree that ____________. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of _______________. Whereas some are convinced that _____________, others maintain that____________.

Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today's concern over________________.

Ultimately, what is at stake here is______________________.

These findings have important implications for the broader issue of________________.
If X is right about__________________, then major consequences follow for_________________.

Although X may seem of concern to only a small group of_________________, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about____________________.


Rhetorical Strategies: a writer's tool bag.

Rhetorical Strategies help writer's achieve their goals. If my goal is to teach you about Rhetorical Strategies, for example, then I most likely will use the strategy of definition. What is a Rhetorical Strategy? A rhetorical strategy is a pattern of writing used to convey a message. Rhetorical Strategies are the ways in which an author conveys his or her ideas.

Rhetorical Strategies are the patterns or modes of writing. 

Some of the more common Rhetorical Strategies are: definition, description, narration, process, cause and effect, classification and division. An argument is also a Rhetorical Strategy, but it is a more complex strategy and every sound argument will inevitably include a wide variety of individual strategies.

Exemplification is a very effective strategy. In fact, let me give you an example.

A plumber brings a supply of tools to every job because having a variety of tools increases the plumber's ability to fix the problem. In the same way, a writer needs to have a variety of tools readily available to convey his or her message. Rhetorical Strategies are a writer's tools. Some jobs require a writer to use one or two 'tools.' Other jobs (like creating an effective argument), require a whole tool box full of tools.

Aristotle's Appeals and Rhetorical Strategies only help you to improve your writing if you understand the fundamentals of the Rhetorical Triangle; keeping your audience and purpose in mind as you write will help you to craft a highly effective message. 

While ethos, pathos and logos provide a solid framework for understanding the fundamental principals of persuasion, in order to write an effective argument writers 
must work hard to develop their ideas using a variety of writing modes. 
The following modes, or patterns of writing, are a writer's most useful tools:

Modes of Writing


In their book Inventing Arguments, Mark Mauk and John Metz define rhetoric as "a process of recognizing and using the most effective strategies for influencing thought" (530). They attribute the earliest definition of rhetoric to Aristotle who first associated the term with persuasion:  "Aristotle defined rhetoric as the ability in each particular case to see the available means of persuasion" (Mauk and Metz 530). Moreover, they explain that rhetoric is not only "a tool for changing people's minds," but also the study of: 

  1. belief and persuasion 
  2. the relationship between language and belief
  3. how cultural traditions shape everyday language

Teaching the basics of rhetoric offers students a sound framework for thinking critically because they begin to see writing and communication as active interplay between reader and writer that can be influenced by time, place, audience and purpose. Once they understand that the writer's job is to send a message and the reader's job is to make meaning of this message, then they begin to see how a text is not a static object, but rather a text is 'situated' between reader and writer and that situation is highly dependent on a set of variables that are re-defined by the circumstances surrounding each reading.  

Looping not launching
Often students get side-tracked by their own ideas or personal examples and launch off into a topic that takes the reader too far away from the text being analyzed. When responding to a prompt or writing a critical analysis of a text, writers need to make sure they continually loop from their ideas back to the ideas presented in the prompt and/or text. 

Think of the text as your friend.

Think about how you talk to a friend or a family member about a problem they are having. You listen to what that person wants to talk about and connect with them in a way that makes clear you understand and care about what they are saying. In order to do this, you might even explain an event or problem in your own life, or in the world, that is similar to the ideas and/or problems that your friend is talking about so that they know you really do understand. What you don't do is to ignore their problem and launch into your own issues without even acknowledging what they wanted to talk about—at least not if you are a good friend. 

Loop don't Launch
So, in order to be a good friend you must: (1) comprehend what they are saying (2) connect their ideas with experiences that relate to your own life and/or your own observations about the world, or even facts you may know on the topic, all the while making sure they know you understand that what they are saying is important. The key to being a good friend is that you don't launch off into your own ideas and forget all about your friend and the issues at the heart of the discussion when you do this.

The same is true when writing an academic essay in response to a prompt or text. Your job is to connect to the prompt/text in a meaningful way. Just like when you are talking with your friend, the trick is to find the proper balance between the ideas presented in the prompt and your analysis and personal experience all the while making sure that your reader knows that you understand and value the topic.

To keep this balance, think of the prompt not as simply a launching off point for your own ideas, but rather think of your response as a process of looping from the topic of the text (or prompt) out to your analysis, and then back to the topic.

Just to clarify: after acknowledging the ideas in the prompt, it is okay to launch off into your personal connections with this topic—because making personal connections is one of the most effective ways of showing that you understand and care about a topic— but after reflecting personally always be careful to loop back to the topic addressed in the prompt—don't launch so far off the topic into your own reflection that your reader feels like you forgot about the prompt all together. 

Loop back to the prompt by making concrete connections to the topic introduced in the prompt throughout your essay. One way to do this is to reconnect through attribution using the author's name. For example, "Rose's point makes clear that..." or "Rose explains the importance of...." You can also use the language from the prompt throughout your essay to make sure you stay on track. You can also establish a pattern of reconnecting to the main idea expressed in the prompt in your topic and/or transitional sentences. Whatever method you use to support your claim, always make sure you don't forget to "listen" to your friend (the prompt) and continually looping back as you further develop your ideas. 
Project: To complete a Rhetorical Analysis, you must examine how a piece of writing is constructed. Rather than exploring the content, a rhetorical analysis asks you to examine how the writer uses strategies to convey his/her message to the audience. By deconstructing a text in this way, students can better understand how the 'moves' a writer makes are connected to the purpose and the audience. Exploring how professional writers get their point across can help student writers gain more awareness of their own writing and, especially, how each paragraph works hard to convey meaning given a certain set of circumstances. These circumstances, or the rhetorical situation, play a major role in shaping both the message and the meaning. However, deconstructing a text in this way can also help READERS think more critically about what they have read. Since college writers must analyze, not just summarize, rhetorical analysis can be a great pre-writing activity for any essay that ask for critical reflection on a reading. 

In their textbook, Everything's an Argument, Andrea Lunsford and John J. Ruszkiewicz provide a great list of questions for conducting a Rhetorical Analysis. The following list of questions was adapted from their work:

  • What is the purpose of the argument? What does it hope to achieve?
  • Who is the audience of the argument?
  • What appeals does this argument use—emotional, logical, ethical?
  • What type or genre of argument is it?And how does the genre affect the argument?
  • Who is making the argument? What ethos does it create, and exactly how does it do so? What values attach to the ethos? How does it try to make the writer or creator seem trustworthy and/or credible?
  • What authorities and/or sources does the argument rely on?
  • What facts are used in the argument? What logic? What evidence? How is the evidence arranged and presented?
  • What claims are advanced in the argument? What issues are raised, and which one are ignored, or, perhaps, evaded?
  • What are the contexts—social, political, historical, cultural—for this argument? Whose interests does it serve? Who gains or loses by it?
  • What shape does the argument take?How is the argument organized or arranged? What media does the argument use?
  • How does the language or style of the argument work to persuade an audience?

Remember, every argument is unique and not all of the above question will apply to each situation. Discuss and log the most effective methodologies employed by the author. Were you persuaded? Why or why not? 

About conclusions
Introductions and conclusions can be the most difficult parts of papers to write. While the body is often easier to write, it needs a frame around it. An introduction and conclusion frame your thoughts and bridge your ideas for the reader.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the "place" of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to summarize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader's life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion.
  • Play the "So What" Game. If you're stuck and feel like your conclusion isn't saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, "So what?" or "Why should anybody care?" Then ponder that question and answer it. Here's how it might go:

You: Basically, I'm just saying that education was important to Douglass.
Friend: So what?
You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen.
Friend: Why should anybody care?
You: That's important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.
You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself "So What?" as you develop your ideas or your draft.

More Tips:
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don't summarize: Include a brief summary of the paper's main points, but don't simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader's thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid
  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as "in conclusion," "in summary," or "in closing." Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite (Ms. Knapp says not trite, platitudinous!) in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Source: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The Writing Center http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/conclusions.html

Literary Interviews
Today you will conduct in-class literary interviews with a peer partner. Please record the answers to the interview on a separate sheet of paper with your name at the top. Title the paper Literary Interview. These papers will be collected for participation points and returned on Thursday.

Directions: Working in pairs you will take turns interviewing each other about your research paper. 
  1. What have you decided to write about in your Formal Paper?
  2. Why did you pick this topic? What aspect of this topic connects with your world or the world in general?
  3. What claim do you work to support in your paper?  (Remember a claim should be debatable/arguable)
  4. Why does this topic matter? 
  5. Who do you know in your life who should read this paper? Why?
  6. Who is the audience for this paper? Try to target a specific audience.
  7. What research did you read and what support were you able to incorporate from this reaearch? What research do you still need to find that would help you to support your claim?
  8. What one action would you get your audience to take if you could? Why would this make a difference?
  9. What part of the writing process do you find most challenging? Why?
  10. What do you still need to work on in the paper and/or what aspect do you need to spend more time researching? 
  11. Interviewer, please ask a question of your choosing about the topic of the paper.